In the 1850s, arkansas was a frontier state most arkansans, especially those who lived in the highlands of the north and west, were farmers engaged in subsistence agriculture on small parcels of land. The legend of bill dark: guerrilla warfare, oral history, and the unmaking of an arkansas bushwhacker michael a davis the war of the rebellion unleashed a reign of terror, crime, and an. Arkansas civil war, civil war sesquicentennial, guerrilla war, randolph county arkansas, skirmish at buckskull a plethora of skirmishes at buckskull in randolph county, written by derek allen clements for our friends at the encyclopedia of arkansas history and culture. Civil war through reconstruction, 1861 through 1874 in the last years of the 1850s, arkansas enjoyed an economic boom that was unparalleled in its history but in the years between 1861 and 1865, the bloody and destructive civil war destroyed that prosperity.
On september 28, 1863, captain william t leeper with elements of the third missouri state militia cavalry moved into randolph county, arkansas, to engage guerrillas in the area. Searcy county december 31, operations in northwest arkansas, newton, searcy, izzard and carroll counties, against guerrillas january 16-february 15, 1864 clear creek and tomahawk january 22 bailey's crooked creek january 23.
Guerrilla warfare the term 'guerrilla' originates from the actions of small bands of spanish soldiers who fought against napolean's french army in the peninsular war (1807-1814) the word 'guerrilla' is spanish for little war. This week is the first of two parts on rebel women part i is she-adders and star-crossed lovers - stories about missouri women who defied the law to collect and send letters to loved ones serving in the confederate army. Guerrillas in arkansas during the american civil war, there were such things called guerrillas no, i am not talking about the muscular black creatures that hide in the jungle though that is exactly how the confederate independent companies got there name.
Much has been written on the missouri guerrillas and in contrast much less material exists on arkansas confederate guerrilla warfare it is actually not until the 1960s that the first serious study was produced on the guerrillas in that state and not until the 1990s serious analysis of this main aspect of the war in. William j wild bill heffington of yell county was a well known union guerrilla leader who operated along the arkansas river valley, but who occasionally appeared in northwest arkansas he was a cool and daring woodsman who deserted from the confederate army and rallied a bold band of followers. Guerrilla warfare in the american civil war followed the same general patterns of irregular warfare conducted in 19th century europe structurally, they can be divided into three different types of operations—the so-called 'people's war', 'partisan warfare', and 'raiding warfare. Federal counter-guerrilla operations were successful in reducing the impact of confederate guerrilla warfare in arkansas, federal forces used a wide variety of strategies to defeat irregulars these included the use of arkansas unionist forces as anti-guerrilla troops, the use of riverine forces.
Guerrilla ambushes and midnight raids in arkansas was how the civil war was fought not a war within the war, but the war secondly, general earl van dorn became the first confederate commander to endorse the use of arkansas guerrillas in may 1862. The guerrilla war, as waged by both confederate guerrillas and unionists in the south, gathered in intensity between 1861 and 1865 and had a profound impact on the outcome of the war as soon as the civil war broke out in april 1861, guerrilla warfare emerged as a popular alternative to enlistment in the confederate army. To the inhabitants of monroe county, arkansas: guerrilla bands, raised in your vicinity, have fired from the woods upon the united states boats and transports in white river this mode of warfare. John william (bill) dark was a bushwhacker in north-central arkansas during the civil war from june 1862 to january 1863, he served as captain of company a, coffee's recruits, a guerrilla band that attempted to thwart federal advances in northern arkansas, as well as to conscript state troops. Arkansas's terrain of mountains and deep rivers favored guerrilla actions in the north, and swamps in the south the most costly economic factors and the most annoying of all guerrilla strategies were the suffering of river traffic and confiscation of its cargo.
Jayhawker and bushwhacker designate the principal warring parties in the civil war's guerrilla conflict, although the names were not unique to arkansas and actually predated the war by many years. The history of guerrilla warfare stretches back to ancient historywhile guerrilla tactics can be viewed as a natural continuation of prehistoric warfare, the chinese general and strategist sun tzu, in his the art of war (6th century bce), was the earliest to propose the use of guerrilla warfare. We learn from the officers of the steamer mattie, which arrived from white river on sunday, that the guerrillas in force had made a dash on the little rock railroad, within a mile or two of duvall.
With widespread guerrilla warfare across the country there was a surge in the number of law suits brought against individuals and groups for radical criminal acts the sheppard case demonstrates how courts tried to maintain justice, during a time of turmoil and conflict. Arkansas civil war, fort smith arkansas, guerrillas, price's raid, second arkansas cavalry another civil war arkansas entry from the encyclopedia of arkansas, this one on the november 5-16 fort smith expedition by david sesser of henderson state university. A year later, general thomas c hindman called on the citizens of arkansas to attack the union invader day and night, to kill his scouts and pickets, kill his pilots and his troops on.